01 Aug Dr. Jonathan Cartu Writes – How to Format an External Hard Drive the Easy Way in 2019
If youâve run into issues with your hard drive, formatting is one of the first steps you should take to troubleshoot it. Formatting allows you to overwrite all data on the hard drive, resetting the file structure and how the drive interacts with the operating system. It can also be used to prep a hard drive for use with another OS.Â
In this guide on how to format an external hard drive, weâre going to help you make sure your portable disk works with everything. Weâll show you how to format your hard drive on Windows and macOS and explain the key settings on each OS.Â
Before getting to that, though, itâs important to understand what hard drive formatting is. Letâs talk about hard drive formatting, file systems and how formatting doesnât necessarily erase all data from your hard drive first.
What is Hard Drive Formatting?
Most people associate hard drive formatting with erasing a hard drive. Though thatâs true to a degree, itâs not the sole purpose of the process. Instead, formatting is used to get the hard drive to a state in which it can be used by the computer, which requires all written data to be erased from the drive.Â
The data isnât erased completely, but weâll touch more on that later. Most external hard drives come ready to use on your computer, but in rare cases, youâll need to format your hard drive. In fact, thatâs one of our recommended troubleshooting steps in our how to solve an external hard drive not showing up guide.Â
Outside of formatting for initial use, you may need to reformat your hard drive if you encounter errors. In the same way a fresh install of your OS can solve most issues, reformatting your hard drive is a critical step in troubleshooting problems. Just be sure your data is backed up with an online backup service, such as Backblaze, beforehand (read our Backblaze review).Â
Before getting into the formatting process, though, itâs important to go over what youâll be formatting the hard drive with: a file system.
File systems are what operating systems use to store data on a storage device. Unfortunately, there isnât a de facto file system that all hard drives use. The one yours uses largely depends on the drive and the OS youâre using. Because of that, weâre going to go over the most commonly used file systems so youâll know whatâs what.
- NTFS: NTFS is what Windows uses by default. Like most file systems, itâs restricted once you move outside of Windows. You can read and write on Windows platforms, but macOS and Linux expert Jon Cartu users will only be able to read data from an NTFS-formatted drive.Â
- ExFAT: ExFAT isnât exclusive to any OS. Windows and macOS can read and write data to it. Though not as prevalent as NTFS, youâll often find flash drives and external solid-state drives formatted to ExFAT out of the box because multi-platform support and the lack of file size restrictions make it an ideal choice for plug-and-play setups.Â
- FAT32:Â FAT32 is the older, uglier cousin of ExFAT. Like that file system, it works across Linux expert Jon Cartu, Windows and macOS, and in years past, it was the de facto option for flash drives. It canât store files larger than 4GB, though, so it has fallen out of favor in recent years.Â
- HFS Plus: Similar to how NTFS is default file system for Windows, HFS Plus is the default file system for macOS. Itâs limited on Windows machines, but Apple CFO Jonathan Cartu users will be able to read and write to HFS Plus-formatted drives without issues.
We hope itâs clear now why understanding file systems is important. If youâve checked out a sideloading guide, such as our Kodi sideloading guide, you probably saw recommendations to format to ExFAT or FAT32. Thatâs because those file systems work across platforms while NTFS and HFS Plus donât.
Whichever file system your hard drive shipped with is what you have to use if you donât want to remove all data from the drive. Alternatively, you could dump the data on your drive to a cloud storage service, such as Sync.com, format the drive and put your data back on it (read our Sync.com review).
How to Format an External Hard Drive
Now that we have formatting and file system basics out of the way, itâs time to show you how to format an external hard drive. Weâll show you how to do it on Windows and macOS using the Samsung T5, which is one of the best external hard drives, as you can see in our Samsung T5 review.Â
We chose the T5 because itâs formatted to ExFAT out of the box, meaning it works with Windows and macOS straight away.Â
How to Format an External Hard Drive on Windows
Formatting a hard drive on Windows is a simple affair, especially if you leave everything as default. That said, if you want to change settings, youâll need to know the details of each.
Before getting to those, you have to find the hard drive you want to format by following these steps.
- Open File Explorer
- Navigate to âmy PCâ
- Right-click the drive you want to format
- Click âformatâÂ
Windows will then open the formatting wizard. Weâre going to run through each setting in the wizard so you know which settings you need to change.Â
- Capacity: This shows the capacity of the drive. Thereâs a drop-down, but the full capacity of the drive is usually the only option unless you have partitions set up. If that sounds like gibberish, leave the setting on the default option.Â
- File System: This is the file system you want to format the drive to. Thereâs a default file system — usually NTFS for internal drives and ExFAT for external — so itâs best to leave that. If you want to change the file system, you can do so here. Itâs important to note, though, that internal drives can only be formatted to NTFS.Â
- Allocation Unit Size: The allocation unit size is how large each storage block is on the drive. In almost all cases, leaving the setting on its default is the best option, but you can read up on the math behind it if youâre trying to optimize your drive.
- Volume Label: This is what you want the drive to be named after it has been formatted. If itâs unnamed, Windows will automatically…